introduction

The Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology is concerned with studying the Distribution, Behaviour, Ecology, Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, and the Susceptibility of medical parasites, Insects and Arachnida to the locally available and used control measures. Also, the department research portfolio is spanning to include investigating the Epidemiology, Transmission and dynamics of the vector-borne Diseases, and their susceptibility to the currently used drugs.

Mission

Our aim is to contribute to the control and elimination of the Vector-borne Diseases locally and regionally.

Vision

To be a reference laboratory that leading the research and control of the Vector-borne Diseases in the region.

Methods

We work through a global collaboration and partnership with sisters departments and institutes around the world. Also, we work closely with Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, States Ministries of Health in Sudan, International Non-Governmental Organization, UN agencies, and other Health and Research partners such as Donors and Funding Agencies.

Head Department

Dr. Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, PhD; Associate Professor

Email: mahdi@iend.org // mahdi@uofk.edu

Members

1.Prof Abdelrahim Osman (MBBS, PhD)

2.Dr. Musab Albsheer (PhD)

3.Dr Mohamed Siddig (MBBS)

4.Dr Hana Salah-Eldin (PhD)

5.Mr Ayman Ahmed (BSc, MSc)

6.Ms Arwa Elaagip (BSc, MSc)

7.Mawada Yousif (BSc, MSc)

8.Safa Ahmed (BSc, MSc)

9.Fayad Jamaledin (BSc)

10.Mawahib Musa (BSc)

International Collaborators

1.Dr David Weetman, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), UK.

https://www.lstmed.ac.uk/about/people/dr-david-weetman

2- Dr. Sonia Goncalves, MalariaGen-Wellcome Sanger Institute, UK.

https://www.sanger.ac.uk/people/directory/goncalves-sonia

3.Sir Prof Ali Zumla, Professor of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University College London, UK.

https://www.ucl.ac.uk/infection-immunity/people/professor-sir-ali-zumla

4.Dr Seda Yerlikaya, Dr Xavier Ding, FIND, Switzerland.

https://www.finddx.org/geneva-hq-staff

Research areas

1.Studying the distribution, biology, ecology, behaviour, and genetic of the Diseases Vectors.

2.Molecular epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax malaria, parasite genomic diversity and population genetics.

3.Monitoring insecticide resistance in the major diseases vectors.

4.Diseases transmission and epidemiology.

5.Monitoring malaria drug resistance.

6.Surveillance, burden and risk modelling of Arbo-viral diseases..

7.Monitoring antimicrobial drug resistance.

8.Malaria diagnostics development.

Projects and Funders

1.Clinical Evaluation of Automated Microscope Solutions for Malaria Diagnosis (2020). Funded by FIND, Switzerland, 2020.

2.Molecular characterization and identification of risk factors associated with Aedes-borne viruses (Dengue, Chikungunya) in eastern Sudan, (2019). Funded by the Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS).

3.Genomic characterization of Chikungunya virus circulating in Sudan (2019). Funded by the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (RSTMH).

4.Pan-African Network for Rapid Research, Response, Relief and Preparedness for Infectious Diseases Epidemics, PANDORA-ID NET (2018). Funded by the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP).

5.Assessing the burden of co-infection of malaria and Aedes-borne arboviral diseases in the Khartoum state, Sudan. (2018). funded by the EMRO/TDR.

6.Surveillance of healthcare-associated gram-negative bacterial infections and molecular identification of antimicrobial resistance genes (2016). Funded by Ministry of Higher Education, Sudan.

7.Entomological and socioeconomic determinants affecting Dengue prevalence in Kassala area, Sudan (2016). Funded by EMRO/TDR.

8.Investigation on the mechanisms of carbamate and organophosphate resistance in the major malaria vector in Sudan 2015. Funded by Wellcome Trust Masters fellowship in Public Health and Tropical Medicine.

9.Plasmodium vivax malaria in central and eastern Sudan: Molecular epidemiology, burden, and development of ArcView GIS maps (2015). Funded by EMRO/TDR.

10.Estimation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency prevalence and evaluation of phenotypic tests in malaria endemic areas and evaluation of phenotypic tests in Sudan (2014). Funded by EMRO/TDR.

11.Micro-evolution of Plasmodium vivax in East Africa in relevance to vector adaption (2014). Funded by Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS).

Publications

1.Abdelrahim O Mohamed, Maazza Hussien, Amal Mohamed, Abdelmaroof Suliman, Nuha S. Elkando, Hanadi Abdelbagi, Elfatih M. Malik, Mohammed H Abdelraheem, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid. Assessment of Plasmodium falciparum molecular drug resistance markers from the Blue Nile State, Southeast Sudan. Malaria Journal. 2020.

2.Virginie Rougeron, Eric Elguero, Céline Arnathau, (…), Musab Mohamad Albsheer, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Jean-François Trape, François Renaud, Franck Prugnolle. Human Plasmodium vivax diversity, population structuration and evolutionary origin. Accepted for publication. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2020.

3.Ayman Ahmed, Isabelle Dietrich, A. Desiree LaBeaud, Steve W. Lindsay, Ahmed Musa, and Scott C. Weaver. "Risks and Challenges of Arboviral Diseases in Sudan: The Urgent Need for Actions." Viruses 12, no. 1 (2020): 81.

4.Ayman Ahmed, Johanna Daily, Andres Lescano, Linnie Golightly, and Abiola Fasina. "Challenges and Strategies for Biomedical Researchers Returning to Low-and Middle-Income Countries after Training." The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2020): tpmd190674.

5.Muzamil M. Abdel Hamid, Walla M. E. Abdallaha, Maazza Hussien, Niven M. Mohammed, Elfatih M. Malik, Mohamed E.Ahmed, Abdelrahim O. Mohameda. Absence of K13 gene mutations among AS/SP treatment failures of Sudanese Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Damazin, Southeast Sudan. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (2019).

6.Ayman Ahmed. Urgent call for a global enforcement of the public sharing of health emergencies data: Lesson learned from serious arboviral disease epidemics in Sudan. Int. Health 2019; 0, 1–3.

7.Musab M. Ali Albsheer, Salma Mohamed Al-Zain, Eugenia Lo, Muntaser E. Ibrahim, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid. Distribution of Duffy phenotypes among Plasmodium vivax malaria infections in Sudan. Genes.2019.

8.Eugenia Lo, Jessica B. Hostetler,Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Richard D. Pearson, Muzamil M. A. Hamid, Karthigayan Gunalan, Daniel Kepple, Anthony Ford, Daniel A. Janies6, Julian C. Rayner4, Louis H. Miller,Guiyun Yan. Frequent expansion of Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein in Ethiopia and its epidemiological significance. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2019.

9.Ahmed A, Ali Y, Elmagboul B, Mohamed O, Elduma A,(…) Arwa Elaagip, Tarig Higazi. Dengue Fever in the Darfur Area, Western Sudan - Volume 25, Number 11—November 2019 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC. 2019 Nov 11. 18-1766.

10.Elbadawi, Hana Salaheldin, Kamal Mustafa Elhag, Elsheikh Mahgoub, Hisham N. Altayb, and Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid. Antimicrobial resistance surveillance among gram-negative bacterial isolates from patients in hospitals in Khartoum State, Sudan. F1000Research 8. 2019.

11.Ayman Ahmed, Elduma A, Magboul B, Higazi T, and Ali A. "The First Outbreak of Dengue Fever in Greater Darfur, Western Sudan." Tropical medicine and infectious disease 4, no. 1 (2019): 43.

12.Mohamed NS, Osman HA, Muneer MS, Samy AM, Ayman Ahmed, Mohammed AO, et al. Identifying asymptomatic Leishmania infections in non-endemic villages in Gedaref state, Sudan. BMC Res Notes. 2019 Sep 11;12(1):566.

13.Zarroug, Isam MA, Arwa Elaagip, Suhaib G. Gumaa, Altayeb K. Ali, Ayman Ahmed, Hanaa AM Siam, Deena M. Abdelgadir et al. "Notes on distribution of Simulium damnosum sl along Atbara River in Galabat sub-focus, eastern Sudan." BMC infectious diseases 19, no. 1 (2019): 477.

14.Mohamed NS, Ali Albsheer MM, Abdelbagi H, Siddig EE, Mohamed MA, Ahmed AE, Omer RA, Muneer MS, Ayman Ahmed, et al. Genetic polymorphism of the N-terminal region in circumsporozoite surface protein of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Sudan. Malar J. 2019 Oct 1;18(1):333.

15.Arwa Elaagip; Ayman Ahmed; Michael David Wilson, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid. “Studies of host preferences of wild-caught Phlebotomus orientalis and Ph. papatasi vectors of leishmaniasis in Sudan”. 2019. Submitted to Parasites & Vectors.

16.Hamid, Zhoor, Tassneem Hamid, Khider Alsedig, Tajeldin Abdallah, Arwa Elaagip, Ayman Ahmed, Fatima Khalid, and Muzamil Abdel Hamid. "Molecular investigation of dengue virus serotype 2 circulation in Kassala state, Sudan." Japanese journal of infectious diseases (2018): JJID-2018.

17.Mohammad Rafiul Hoque, Mohammed Elfaki, Md Atique Ahmed, Seong-Kyun Lee, Fauzi Muh, Musab M. Ali Albsheer, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid and Eun-Taek Han. Diversity pattern of Duffy binding protein sequence among Duffy negatives and Duffy positives in Sudan. Malaria Journal, 2018:17:297.doi: 10.1186/s12936-018-2425-z.

18.Mohamed H. Abdelraheem, Mohamed A. Idris, Devendra Bansal, Maowia Mukhtar, Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Rakesh Sehgal, Hargobinder Kaur, Amal A. H. Gadalla, Sisay Getachew, Salama Al-Hamidhi, Zainab Al-Hashami, Ali A. Al-Jabri, Arnab Pain, Ali A. Sultan, Hamza A. Babiker. Genetic diversity and potential transmissibility of imported Plasmodium vivax in the Arab Gulf States and three countries of origin. Scientific Reports. 2018.

19.Muzamil M. Abdel Hamid, Jutta Marfurt; Hamid M. Basheir; Hanadi Abdelbagi, Ingrid Chen; Benedikt Ley; Ric Price; Roly Gosling, Tasneem Hamid; Maha Elobied; Kamala Thriemer; Nouh S. Mahgoub; Suhaib A. Gumaa; Hassan M. H. Elsafi; Salah A. Boshara. Low risk of recurrence following Artesunate-Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine plus primaquine for uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in the Republic of the Sudan. Malaria Journal. 2018.

20.Innas ELsayed, Mutaz Amin, Muzamil M. Abdel Hamid, Mie Rizig. Malaria and burkitt's lymphoma an in silico analysis of gene expression links between malaria and burkitt's lymphoma and potential anticancer activity of artemisinin derivatives. https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/06/27/356782.

21.Muzamil M. Abdel Hamid, Mona Awad-Elgeid, Awad Nasr. Gene variation and suspected Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 gene deletion and its impact on sensitivity of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Sudan. 2017. BMJ Global Health.

22.Suliman MM, Hamad BM, Albasheer MM, Elhadi M, Amin Mustafa M, Elobied M, Hamid MM. Molecular Evidence of High Proportion of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Infection in White Nile Area in Sudan. Journal of parasitology research. 2016

23.Hamid MM, Elamin AF, Albsheer MM, Abdalla AA, Mahgoub NS, Mustafa SO, Muneer MS, Amin M. Multiplicity of infection and genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from patients with uncomplicated and severe malaria in Gezira State, Sudan. Parasit Vectors. 2016.

24.Abdelraheem MH, Albsheer MM, Mohamed HS, Amin M, Hamid MM. Transmission of Plasmodium vivax in Duffy-negative individuals in central Sudan. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2016

25.Elbadawi MA, Awadalla MK, Hamid MM, Mohamed MA, Awad TA. Valproic acid as a potential inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum histone deacetylase 1 (PfHDAC1): an in silico approach. International journal of molecular sciences. 2015 Feb 11;16(2):3915-31.

26.Muzamil Mahdi Abdel Hamid, Ibrahim Eljack, Mohammad Khatim M. Osman, Arwa H. Elaagip, Mohamed S. Muneer. 2014. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana among preschool children of displaced communities in Khartoum state, Sudan. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2015:

27.Tellal B Ageep, David Damiens, Bashir Alsharif, Ayman Ahmed, et al. Participation of irradiated Anopheles arabiensis males in swarms following field release in Sudan (2014). Malaria Journal 2014 13:484.

28.Abuelmaali SA, Elaagip AH, Basheer MA, Frah EA, Ahmed FT, Elhaj HF, Seidahmed OM, Weetman D, Hamid MM. Impacts of agricultural practices on insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Khartoum State, Sudan. PLoS One. 2013.

29.Hemeidan E. Yousif, Muzamil M.Abdel Hamid, Christopher M. Jones annd Hillary Robinson. Extensive Permethrin and DDT Resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Eastern and Central Sudan, Parasites and Vectors, 4:154. 2011.

30.Muzamil M. Abdel Hamid, Edmond J. Remarque, Leonie M. van Duivenvoorde, Clemens H.M. Kocken, Bart W. Faber and Alan W. Thomas. 2011. Vaccination with Plasmodium knowlesi Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1) formulated in the novel adjuvant Co-Vaccine HT™ protects against blood-stage challenge in rhesus macaques. PloS One. 2011.

31.Muzamil M. Abdel Hamid, Walter R. Weiss, Edmond J. Remarque,, Ibrahim M. El Hassan, Ayman A. Hussain, David L. Narum, Bart W. Faber and Alan W. Thomas. 2011. Malaria Infection by Sporozoite Challenge Induces High Functional Antibody Titres Against Blood Stage Antigens After a DNA Prime, Poxvirus Boost Vaccination Strategy in Rhesus Macaques. Malaria Journal. 2011:10:29.

32.Muzamil M. Abdel Hamid, Edmond J Remarque, Bart W Faber, Leonie M van Duivenvoorde,Clemens HM Kocken, Alan W Thomas. 2010. Interplay between AMA1 immunisation and parasite challenge leads to protection against malaria infection in rhesus macaques. Malaria Journal, 9 (Suppl 2):P14.

33.Ibrahim ME, Mahdi M., Bereir RE, Giha RS, Wasunna C. 2008. Evolutionary conservation of RNA editing in the genus Leishmania. Infect Genet Evol. 8(3):378-380.

34.Mahdi M, Elamin EM, Melville SE, Musa AM, Blackwell JM, Mukhtar MM,Elhassan AM, Ibrahim M. E. 2005. Sudanese mucosal leishmaniasis: isolation of a parasite within the Leishmania donovani complex that differs genotypically from L. donovani causing classical visceral leishmaniasis. Infect Genet Evol. 5(1):29-33.

35.Elamin EM, Guerbouj S, Musa AM, Guizani I, Khalil EA, Mukhtar MM, Elkadaro AM, Mohamed HS, Ibrahim ME, Mahdi M. Abdel Hamid, El Azhari M, El Hassan AM. 2005. Uncommon clinical presentations of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan. Trans. Royal Society Tropical Medicine Hygiene. 99(11):803-8.